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在APL为国家安全和太空探索做出的数千项关键贡献中,有一些是决定性的创新:改变游戏规则的技术突破,创造了历史的拐点. These revolutionary advances have ignited new engineering accomplishments globally, 挽救了生命, and secured 美国nited States against threats at home and abroad.

APL开发了 定义创新海报系列 为了庆祝这些突破. 点击下面的图片下载海报.



接近Vuze

无线电近炸引信:APL的第一个改变游戏规则的技术

Less than six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, APL was established to perfect and field one of America’s most closely guarded wartime secrets—the radio proximity fuze. 叫VT引信来保护它的真实能力, 该装置是一个复杂的微型化电子系统,装在防空炮弹的尖端,坚固耐用,足以抵御20枚炮弹,从海军火炮发射的000克的力量,灵敏到足以在快速移动的敌机附近引爆炮弹. 当它被执行的时候, 无线电近炸引信减少了击落一架敌机所需的平均2发防空炮弹的数量,400个到几个. 为美国生产了2300多万枚引信.S. 和盟军在战争期间, 大大提高了太平洋地区的防空效能,并在欧洲的突出部战役中发挥了至关重要的作用. 无线电近炸引信被历史学家认为是二战中最重要的三大发明之一,另外两个是雷达和原子弹.

美国海军地对空导弹

美国的诞生地.S. 海军地对空导弹

In 1944, APL set out to develop a guided missile that could strike enemy aircraft at a distance of 10–20 nautical miles. 到第二年, they had conducted the first successful supersonic ramjet engine flight test and, with continuous advances in aerodynamics and missile guidance control technology, APL gave birth to the 海军’s first generation of surface-to-air guided missiles—Talos, 梗, 和鞑靼人. Further advances in partnership with industry resulted in the 海军’s first operational shipboard missile defense system, 小猎犬II, 在20世纪50年代早期. 舰载较小导弹的需求导致海军采用APL设计,减少了背鳍的尺寸,主要依靠尾鳍转向控制——这一设计演变成标准导弹的现代变种. 今天, APL remains the technical direction agent for the 海军’s Standard Missile program, 包括SM-2和SM-6, 它们是海军防空的支柱, 以及SM-3, a critical component of the nation’s sea-based ballistic missile defense.

交通

交通: The World’s First Satellite-Based Global Navigation System

In the days after the launch of the Soviet Union’s Sputnik satellite in 1957, scientists around the world tried unsuccessfully to determine the satellite’s orbit using a variety of methods. 两名年轻的APL物理学家仔细观察并记录了斯普特尼克发射信号中的多普勒频移,很快就能在一次架空飞行中准确确定它的轨道. Others at APL realized that if the satellite’s orbit was known, the inverse equation could pinpoint locations anywhere on the Earth’s surface within the satellite’s coverage. With funding from the Defense Advanced 研究 Projects Agency (DARPA) and 美国.S. 海军, APL created the world’s first global satellite navigation system, 由36颗卫星组成的星座,为海军的弹道导弹潜艇部队提供全球导航. 随后的技术进步导致了维持精确频率和定时以及双频处理所需的超稳定振荡器, which are essential to modern navigation and telecommunications. 自船上天文钟问世以来,凌日仪是航海史上最重要的进步,直到21世纪初,它一直服务于广泛的军事和商业需求.

相控阵雷达路径

相控阵雷达路径

到20世纪50年代末, it was clear that existing radar technology was unable to detect, track, 和引导U.S. surface-to-air missiles 对多个 attacking enemy aircraft or missiles. To address this critical challenge, APL developed a “phased array” radar system for the 海军. The system was designed to provide the near-instantaneous scanning, 跟踪, and closed-loop guidance needed to defend against simultaneous aircraft and missile raids. 随着技术的进步,相控阵的关键元件移相器原型问世,雷达波束控制算法和软件以及从环境杂波和信号噪声中区分真实目标所需的复杂信号处理也随之问世. By 1969, APL had built and tested a prototype phased array radar system known as AMFAR (advanced multi-function array radar). This system was the precursor to the AN/SPY-1A, a key enabler of the 海军’s Aegis Combat System. 今天, the legacy of APL’s AMFAR lives on in the AN/SPY-1 radar and its successors, which provide the continuous radar coverage needed to defend 美国.S. 海军, 以及日本海军, 澳大利亚, 西班牙, 和韩国, 对多个, 飞机和导弹同时攻击.

先进声纳阵列

Exploiting Undersea Physics: Enabling 先进声纳阵列

20世纪80年代,长缆线拖曳声纳阵列的实验未能像预期的那样在更远距离探测到威胁潜艇, APL开发了测试, 原型, 模型, 详细的海洋物理和工程分析需要解锁这一革命性技术应用的潜力. APL领导了开发和原型工作, 包括SURTASS 3X阵列(近3英里长), that profoundly improved our ability to detect advanced threat 潜艇 at significantly increased ranges. APL开创性的海底研究和开发为在美国各地使用的强大的远程拖曳阵列提供了基础.S. 今天的海军在潜艇上, 表面的战士, 以及监控平台, and guided the stealth design requirements for multiple generations of U.S. 潜艇.

SATRACK

SATRACK:转换弹道导弹测试

As part of our nation’s sea-based nuclear deterrence strategy, 美国.S. 海军 launched an initiative in the 1970s to improve the accuracy of its submarine-launched ballistic missiles. 迎接这一严峻的挑战, APL开发的SATRACK, 一种导弹携带的仪器包,用于收集原始GPS数据,与导弹遥测和详细的误差估计模型相结合,以预测导弹精度,也预测无法飞行的导弹轨迹, 世界上任何地方. APL’s technology and methodology were quickly adopted by the 海军, 将精确估计武器系统精度所需的飞行试验次数减少一半,从而节省数十亿美元的飞行试验成本. 更重要的, APL的发展使海军能够成功部署三叉戟II,并实现了无与伦比的精度水平.S. 战略司令部有能力完成任务.

战斧

战斧: The World’s First Long-Range, Autonomous, Precision Guided Weapon

20世纪70年代初, 海军寻求APL的帮助,以部署一种远程核巡航导弹,该导弹可以在戒备森严的环境中航行,并打击战略目标. Such a weapon required a means to verify and adjust its location en route to a target. 为了解决这个问题, APL engineers applied terrain contour matching (TERCOM) technology, which matches the missile’s onboard altimeter readings to elevation maps stored in its computer. APL developed algorithms to reliably predict what ground areas would provide correct matches. When greater accuracy was needed for conventionally armed 战斧s, APL开发了应用数字场景匹配区域相关器(DSMAC)技术所需的性能预测算法, 通过将机载摄像机拍摄的图像与导弹计算机中存储的场景进行比较,进一步提高了精度. The conventional land-attack 战斧 enabled by TERCOM and DSMAC became the world’s first long-range, 自治, 精确制导武器, 它一直是美国经济的一个关键因素.S. 阿森纳从90年代初开始. TERCOM and DSMAC remain operational on 战斧 for use when GPS is not available.

合作参与能力

合作参与能力: Networking Fleet Air Defenses

Faced with the threat of highly advanced air and missile attacks against its battle groups in the 1980s, 美国.S. 海军 called on APL to develop a real-time sensor networking concept called the 合作参与能力 (CEC), 哪一种方法可以将多艘船的雷达测量数据结合并集成到复合航迹中,使其比单艘船雷达产生的航迹更准确和持久. 该系统在激烈的敌对电子干扰环境中为战斗群中的舰艇提供相同的威胁雷达图像, allowing ships to fire and guide surface-to-air missiles against targets using data from the radar systems of 其他 ships or aircraft, even when the firing ship’s own radar could not detect or track the targets. 今天CEC已经安装在超过120个美国.S. 海军舰艇和空中预警机,并为下一代海军综合火控-对空(NIFC-CA)能力提供基础, which allows 海军 ships and aircraft to engage threats well beyond the horizon.

低成本行星探索

发现:开创低成本行星探索

20世纪70年代末和80年代航天飞机项目的高成本大大减少了NASA行星科学任务的资金, which at the time typically cost more than $1 billion each. 相信它可以设计, 构建, 并在低于这个阈值的情况下执行任务, APL提出了一代人的雄心壮志, 低成本行星任务. In its first opportunity to prove the viability of its low-cost approach, APL开发了 Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, 第一个绕小行星运行的卫星. APL designed and developed the spacecraft more rapidly and less expensively than had ever been attempted for a planetary science mission; it was a stunning success. 在绕厄洛斯小行星飞行了一年之后, APL工程师将飞船软着陆在小行星上,在那里它继续向地球传输科学数据两周. NEAR任务的成功确立了APL在低成本行星探索方面的国家领导者地位,并激发了NASA“发现”和“新前沿”计划的创建, paving the way for the profound scientific discoveries resulting from APL’s MESSENGER Mercury orbiter, 2004年推出, 和新视野号, which launched in 2006 and completed its historic flyby of Pluto in 2015.

APL庆祝成立80周年

改变游戏规则的影响

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80周年